Fish Nutrition & Bio-Chemistry

9796732299
oysasmi@skuastkashmir.ac.in

Course code

Course Name

Credit Hours

Semester

Lecture schedule

FNB 501

FISH NUTRITION

2+1

I

 

FNB 502

FEED FORMULATION AND FEED TECHNOLOGY

2+1

I

 

FNB 503

NUTRITIONAL ENERGETICS

2+1

I

 

FNB 504

 

NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS AND FEEDING

MANAGEMENT

1+1

I

 

FNB 505

FEED INGREDIENTS AND ADDITIVES

1+1

II

 

FNB 506

PROTEIN NUTRITION

1+1

II

 

FNB 507

LIPID NUTRITION

1+1

II

 

FNB 508

CARBOHYDRATE NUTRITION

1+1

II

 

509

VITAMIN AND MINERAL NUTRITION

1+1

II

 

Detailed Syllabus

FNB 501 FISH NUTRITION

Theory

UNIT I

Protein nutrition of fish and shellfish: Introduction, function and metabolism of protein, amino acids and their classification, specific function, protein deficiency symptoms, evaluation criteria of dietary protein.

UNIT II

Lipid nutrition: Introduction, function, metabolism, Fatty acids and their classification, specific functions of essential fatty acids, deficiency symptoms, evaluation of lipid quality.

UNIT III

Carbohydrate nutrition: Introduction, function, metabolism, improvement of carbohydrate utilization by fish.

UNIT IV

Vitamin and mineral nutrition: Introduction, classification, source, functions, deficiency symptoms.

UNIT V

Energy nutrition: Definition, energetics, expression of energy value of feed (gross energy, digestible energy, metabolizable energy, net energy), partitioning of energy, protein energy ratio.

UNIT VI

Larval nutrition: Importance of live feed and artificial feed, Different types of feed available for larvae, constraints and scope; Larval gut morphology and mode of nutrition.

UNIT VII

Brood stock nutrition: Nutrients required for reproduction, egg and sperm quality.

UNIT VIII

Feed additives: Classification, function, and specific use for economic and quality fish and shellfish production.

Practical

Identification of common feed ingredients; Proximate analysis: Moisture, Crude Protein, Crude Lipid, Ash, Acid insoluble ash, Nitrogen free extract of feed fish tissue, Fatty acid analysis, Calcium, Phosphorus content of feed.

FNB 502  FEED FORMULATION AND FEED TECHNOLOGY

Feed formulation: General principles, different steps of feed formulation, classification of feed ingredients; Energy and protein sources; Evaluation of ingredient quality.

UNIT II

Methods of feed formulation - Pearson’s method, quadratic equation, linear programming, limitations.

UNIT III

Types of feed: Dry (pellets, flakes, powdered, micro-encapsulated, microbound and micro-coated diets) and non-dry.

UNIT IV

Feed manufacturing units and processes: Pulverizer, grinder, mixer, pelletizer, crumbler, drier, Extruder/ Expander, Vacuum coater, fat sprayer.

UNIT V

Feed storage: Hydro-stability of feed and their storage; Prevention of spoilage from rancidity, fungus and associated toxins; Fish disease vectors in feed and quality control; Feed value in relation to processing; Use of natural and synthetic carotenoids: Feed additives.

UNIT VI

Computerized least cost formula and criterions for aquafeed formulation; Enzyme based fish feeds and their role.

UNIT VII

Feed economics and evaluation criteria: FCR, PER, NPU, EAAI, chemical score, biological value. Aqua feed industries in India.

Practical

Feed formulation exercise; Processing of the ingredients, formulation and preparation of isocaloric and isonitrogenous feeds; Preparation of feeds with various binders in order to determine their hydro-stability; Estimation of trypsin inhibitors, Tannin and HCN in the feed ingredients;

Determination of vitamin C and carotenoids in feeds; Preparation of mineral and vitamin premix.

FNB 503 NUTRITIONAL ENERGETICS

Theory

UNIT I

Introduction to nutritional energetics: Energy budget equation, energy flow in fish and shellfish; Gross energy, digestible energy, metabolizable energy, nnet energy, heat increment; Factors influencing ingestion, absorption, excretion, respiration, and metabolism and their effect.

UNIT II

Energy requirement: Energy requirement of fish and factors influencing it; Estimation of energy content of feed components based on chemicals composition, indirect and direct methods.

UNIT III

Production and growth : Relationship between feeding and growth; energy exchange in biological system; Methodology for estimating maintenance requirement; growth and reproduction; limitation and prospective of bioenergetics.

UNIT IV

Carbohydrate metabolism: Glycolysis - overview, key structures and reactions, control of glycolysis; TCA cycle: different steps, stoichiometry and control of cycle; Alternate pathways of carbohydrate metabolism: pentose phosphate pathway and gluconeogenesis, glycogen metabolism, regulation of blood glucose.

UNIT V

Lipid metabolism: Fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis, Generation of acetyl CoA, NADH/NADPH and FADH2, oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids; control of fatty acid metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation: redox potential, respiratory chain and its enzyme system, ATP synthesis.

UNIT VI

Protein and amino acid metabolism: Oxidative degradation of amino acids, transmission and deamination, ammonia carriers and excretion; biosynthesis of non-essential amino acids.

UNIT VII

Intermediary metabolism: Integration of carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism.

Practical

Estimation of gross and digestive energy of feed and feed ingredients; Estimation of digestibility of nutrients, Bomb- calorimetry; Energy budget equation based on experiential data supplied; Determination of standard metabolism in fish; End product estimation of aerobic and anaerobic carbohydrates metabolism; Enzyme assay of LDH, aminotransferases, acid phospatase, protease and nucleases; Fatty acid analysis of fish lipids.

FNB 504

NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS AND FEEDING

MANAGEMENT

Theory

UNIT I

Experimental diets: Reference diet, purified and semi-purified diet. Methods for studying nutritional requirements in finfish and shellfish; Nutrient requirements of warm water and cold water fish and shellfish, larvae and broodstock of commercially important shellfish and finfish; Requirement of essential and non-essential amino acids and essential fatty acids; Factors affecting nutritional requirements of fish and shellfish.

UNIT II

Body composition of fish and shellfish; Nutritive value of live feed.

UNIT III

Growth evaluation: FCR, absolute growth, relative growth. SGR, % weight gain.

UNIT IV

Feed influence on body composition and quality; Effect of rations on fecundity and egg quality.

UNIT V

Feeding devices, ration size/feeding rate, feeding frequency, restricted feeding and compensatory feeding; Nutritional studies and the problem of applying research findings to farming systems.

UNIT VI

Designing of nutritional experiments: Analysis of experimental data employing complete Random Block Design (CRD), Random Block Design (RBD), t- test and analysis of variance; Experimental culture systems.

 

Practical

Determination of food intake in fry and fingerlings to ascertain the ration. Purified diet for a fish/prawn to determine protein and lipid requirements. Estimation of growth parameters for biological evaluation. Measures of protein quality. (FCR, PER, NPU, B.V). Mineral mixtures and vitamin premix and exercise on feeding.

FNB 505 FEED INGREDIENTS AND ADDITIVES

Theory

UNIT I

Introduction: National and international scenario; present production trend and future requirements of feed ingredients.

UNIT II

Ingredient classification: Conventional feed ingredients - protein sources, energy sources; Unconventional feed ingredients - by-products of agroindustry, slaughter house, fruit processing units, seafood industry and forest; Single cell proteins; leaf protein concentrates, gluten meal and grain by-products.

UNIT III

Proximate composition; International coding of feed ingredients; Amino acid profile.

UNIT IV

Anti-nutritional factors: Methods of detection and detoxification.

UNIT V

Feed Processing: Methods; effect of processing on nutritional quality and utilization.

UNIT VI

Storage and quality control: Storage methods; effect of storage on ingredient quality; Factors affecting quality of ingredients; toxins.

Practical

Proximate composition; Estimation of Tannin, Protease inhibitors, HCN, Aflatoxin, Available lysine; Storage studies.

FNB 506 PROTEIN NUTRITION

Theory

UNIT I

Protein and amino acid metabolism - Biosysnthesis of protein; oxidative and non-oxidative degradation of amino acids, transamination and deamination; urea cycle; biosynthesis of non-essential amino acids.

UNIT II

Metabolism: digestion, absorption, digestibility, Factors affecting protein digestibility.

UNIT III

Protein energy inter-relationship (P/E Ratio).

UNIT IV

Protein sources and requirement: Conventional and non-conventional; dietary non-protein nitrogen; Protein requirement for maintenance, growth and reproduction; Factors affecting protein requirement; Methods of requirement study.

UNIT V

Amino acid requirements: Qualitative and quantitative; Synthetic amino acids.

UNIT VI

Evaluation of protein quality (PER, NPU, BV, ANPU, PPV), Amino acid antagonism; Protein deficiency symptoms.

Practical

Extraction and purification of protein. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of proteins; Estimation of crude protein by Microkjeldahl method; Estimation of protein by Lowry’s method; Estimation of NPN (urea), total free amino acid, available lysine, amino acids; In-vitro protein digestibility.

FNB 507 LIPID NUTRITION

Theory

UNIT I

Lipid metabolism: Biosynthesis and beta oxidation of fatty acids; generation of acetyl CoA, NADH/NADPH and FADH2; control of fatty acid metabolism.

UNIT II

Sources of lipids and fatty acids, lipid digestibility, transport, storage, mobilization, protein sparing effect.

UNIT III

Requirement: Qualitative and quantitative requirement of essential fatty acids, total lipids.

UNIT IV

Role of essential fatty acids, influence of dietary lipid on flesh quality, evaluation of lipid quality, antioxidants, deficiency symptoms.

UNIT V

Concept of designer fish.

Practical

End product estimation of aerobic and anaerobic carbohydrate metabolism (pyruvate and lactate). Enzyme assay for LDH, MDH, ALT, estimation of phospholipids; Estimation of total lipid and free fatty acid, peroxide value, saponification number, iodine value, Estimation of individual fatty acid by GCMS.

FNB 508 CARBOHYDRATE NUTRITION

Theory

UNIT I

Carbohydrate metabolism: Glycolytic pathway, TCA cycle and Pentose phosphate pathways, Gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis and glycogenolysis.

UNIT II

Sauces of carbohydrates, digestibility, Factors affecting starch utilization, carbohydrate and interaction with other nutrients and protein sparing effect.

UNIT III

Constraints of carbohydrate utilization in fish, Strategy to enhance carbohydrate utilization: gelatinization, exogenous amylases, glucose intolerance, carbohydrates and immunity.

UNIT IV

Carbohydrate utilization for low cost feed.

Practical

Estimation of starch gelatinization in different feed processing methods; Blood glucose estimation; In vitro starch digestibility; Available lysine estimation, Estimation of crude fibre, cellulose and lignin content of feed..

509 VITAMIN AND MINERAL NUTRITION

Theory

UNIT I

Vitamins:Structure and properties of water and fat soluble vitamins; Vitamin as coenzymes and prosthetic groups of enzymes.

UNIT II

Vitamin requirements for different species, Dietary sources of vitamins, Factors affecting vitamin requirements, Losses of vitamin during feed processing.

UNIT III

Metabolic changes associated with hypo- and hyper-vitaminosis. Biosynthesis of vitamins; Manifestation of vitamin deficiency; Vitamin –mineral interactions.

UNIT IV

Minerals: Macro, micro and toxic minerals.

UNIT V

Mineral requirements for different aquaculture species, Dietary sources of minerals, Factors affecting mineral requirement, Nutrient-minerals interaction; Manifestation of mineral deficiency.

Practical

Estimation of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, Iron, Vitamin C, Preparation of vitamin and mineral premix, Estimation of vitamin and mineral loss due to leaching.