Fish Nutrition & Bio-Chemistry

9796732299
oysasmi@skuastkashmir.ac.in

Course code

Course Name

Credit Hours

Semester

Syllabus

Lecture Schedule

FNB 112

Fundamentals of Biochemistry

2+1

I

 given below

Attached

FNB 212

Food Chemistry

3( 2+1)

II

  given below

Attached

FNB-214

Fish Nutrition and Feed Technology

2=1

III

  given below

Attached

Syllabus

FNB 112 Fundamentals of Biochemistry

A brief introduction to developments in biochemistry and its transformation to molecular biology. Cell structure, water and major molecules of life. Carbohydrate chemistry: Structure, classification, functions (mono, di and polysaccharides) isomerism and mutarotation. Metabolism of carbohydrates: glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, glycogenesis, TCA cycle, central role of TCA cycle in metabolism. Protein chemistry: classifications and functions. Classification, structure, function and properties of amino acids. Essential and non essential amino acids. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins. Amphoteric property. Biuret reaction and xanthoproteic reaction. Digestion and absorption of proteins. Classification, structure, functions and properties of lipids. Essential fatty acids and phospholipids. Digestion and absorption of lipids. Lipid autooxidation. Significance of Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids. Enzymes: nomenclature; classification; specificity; mechanism of enzyme action; kinetics and regulation of enzyme activity. Steroid and peptide hormones- chemistry and function. Structure and functions of fat and water soluble vitamins. Vitamins – classification- functions. Minerals – classification – functions. Nucleic acids: Structure function and importance genetic code. Transcription and translation. Protein synthesis. Energy changes in chemical reactions, reversible and irreversible reactions in metabolism.

Practicals: Preparation of normal solution of acid and base, buffers and reagents. Qualitative determination of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Estimation of total nitrogen and crude protein of fish tissue. Estimation of carbohydrates in foods. Determination of specific gravity of oil. Extraction and estimation of total lipids in fish tissue. Determination of saponification value, iodine value and free fatty acid value.

 

FNB 212

Food Chemistry

Composition of food and nutritional value. Moisture in foods. Biological oxidation, electron transport chain, P/0 ratio; oxidative phosphorylation. Carbohydrates: Naturally occurring polysaccharides in foods. Seaweed polysaccharides – sources and uses. Browning reactions – enzymatic and non-enzymatic. Lipids: metabolism of lipids, oxidation of fatty acids, lipoproteins; VLDL and HDL and their importance. Proteins: metabolism, deamination, decarboxylation, metabolic fate of amino acids, nitrogen balance. Deamination reactions and nitrogen excretion with special reference to fish. Fish muscle proteins, chemical changes in muscle during contraction. Proteins in foods, role in hydration- native and denatured proteins, gel formation, functional properties of proteins, changes during heat treatment and processing, texturised proteins. Chemistry of taste, flavour and odour components in foods, flavour intensifiers, synthetic flavouring substances. The taste of fish and shellfish. Food additives - types and their chemical nature, emulsifiers and antimicrobial additives, sequestrants, flavour potentiators surface active agents; non-nutritive sweeteners, colour additives in food. Assessment of quality of food by instrumental and chemical methods. Nutritive value of foods. Energy value and energy requirements and their estimation. Water, electrolytic and acid-base balance. Nutritive value of proteins PER, BV digestibility coefficient, NPU values, pepsin digestibility. Role of fibre in human nutrition.

Practicals: Estimation of moisture, crude protein, fat, ash (including acid soluble) in fish sample. Determination of energy value of fish. Estimation of glucose and salt content in foods. Colorimetric method of estimation of proteins and carbohydrates. Use of pH meter. Estimation of freshness quality indices such as TVBN, TMA, alpha-amino nitrogen, PV, FFA, TBA value of fish. Estimation of fibre in foods.

 

FNB-214

Fish Nutrition and Feed Technology

Fundamentals of fish nutrition and growth in fish. Principal nutrients and nutritional requirements of cultivable fish and shellfish. Nutritional energetics: definition and forms of energy partitioning. Methods of feed formulation and manufacturing. Forms of feeds: wet feeds, moist feeds, dry feeds, mashes, pelleted feeds, floating and sinking pellets. Feed additives: binders, antioxidants, enzymes, pigments, growth promoters, feed stimulants. Feed storage: use of preservatives and antioxidants. Feed evaluation: feed convertion ratio, feed efficiency ratio, protein efficiency ratio, net protein utilization and biological value. Feeding devices and methods. Non-conventional feed ingredients and anti-nutritional factors. Digestive enzymes, feed digestibility. Factors affecting digestibility. Nutritional deficiency diseases.

Practicals: Proximate composition analysis of feed ingredients and feeds. Preparation of artificial feeds using locally available feed ingredients. Determination of sinking rate and stability of feeds. Effect of storage on feed quality.